CHILD Adoption in Brazil

International adoption is a complex and sensitive issue that involves the transfer of children from one country to another. 

Brazil is one of the countries that has seen a significant increase in the number of children available for international adoption. 

While there are many factors that contribute to this trend, the issue of international adoption in Brazil raises important ethical and legal questions.

Brazil is a country with a significant number of children living in poverty or without adequate care due to various factors such as abandonment, poverty, and abuse. 

According to UNICEF, there are approximately 2.7 million Brazilian children living in vulnerable situations. 

The Brazilian government has made efforts to address this issue through social policies and programs that aim to protect children’s rights and improve their living conditions. 

In Brazil, international adoption is regulated by the Federal Council of Social Assistance (CFAS), which is responsible for ensuring that the process is ethical and transparent. The CFAS works closely whit accredited adoption agencies to ensure that children are placed with suitable families and that the process is in compliance with international standards.

The process of international adoption in Brazil can be lengthy and complex, involving extensive documentation and background checks. Prospective adoptive parents must be at least 18 years old and meet certain eligibility criteria, including financial stability and good health. In addition, they must undergo a rigorous evaluation process that includes interviews, home visits, and a psychological assessment.

Once prospective adoptive parents are approved, they are placed on a waiting list, and the process of matching them with a child can take several months or even years. The CFAS and adoption agencies prioritize domestic adoption whenever possible, so international adoption is only considered as a last resort.

While international adoption can provide a loving home for children who are unable to be placed domestically, it is not without controversy. Critics of international adoption argue that it can contribute to the exploitation of children, particularly in cases where adoption agencies profit from the process. In addition, there have been instances where children have been taken from their families without proper consent or where adoptive parents have not provided adequate care.

To address these concerns, Brazil has implemented regulations to ensure that international adoption is conducted ethically and transparently. For example, the CFAS requires that adoption agencies be accredited and that they adhere to strict ethical guidelines. In addition, prospective adoptive parents are required to undergo extensive background checks and evaluations to ensure that they are suitable to provide a safe and stable home for a child.

The CNA, or the National Adoption Committee, is the Brazilian Central Authority (BCA) responsible for regulating and overseeing international adoptions in Brazil. The BCA is a government entity that works in conjunction with the Federal Council of Social Assistance (CFAS) to ensure that international adoptions are carried out ethically and in compliance with Brazilian and international laws and standards.

In addition, the CNA is responsible for ensuring that children who are placed for international adoption are matched with suitable adoptive families. 

The CNA works closely with accredited adoption agencies to assess the needs and best interests of the child and to ensure that the adoption is in compliance with Brazilian and international laws and regulations. 

So, foreing families who whish to adopt a child in Brazil must make thru a specific process regulated by the Brazilian Authorities, who basically comprise the following steps:

1. Choose an accredited adoption agency: Foreign couples must work with an accredited adoption agency that has been authorized by the Brazilian Central Authority (BCA) to handle international adoptions in Brazil. The adoption agency will guide the couple through the process, help them complete the required documentation, and liaise with the BCA and other Brazilian authorities on their behalf.

2. Complete a home study: Foreign couples must undergo a home study conducted by a licensed social worker. The home study assesses the couple’s suitability to adopt a child and includes interviews, home visits, and a psychological evaluation.

3. Submit the necessary documentation: The couple must submit a variety of documents to the BCA, including birth certificates, marriage certificates, financial statements, criminal background checks, and medical reports. The adoption agency will assist the couple in preparing and submitting these documents.

4. Wait for a match: Once the couple has been approved for adoption and all the necessary documentation has been submitted, they will be placed on a waiting list. The BCA prioritizes domestic adoption whenever possible, so international adoption is only considered as a last resort. The waiting period can vary depending on the couple’s preferences and the availability of children.

5. Travel to Brazil: When a match has been made, the couple will be notified and asked to travel to Brazil to meet the child and finalize the adoption. The couple will need to obtain a visa and comply with Brazilian immigration requirements.

6. Complete the adoption process: In Brazil, the adoption process is completed in court. The couple must attend a hearing before a judge, who will review the adoption and issue a final decree. The adoption agency and the BCA will assist the couple throughout this process.]

7. Obtain a passport and travel documents: Once the adoption is finalized, the couple must obtain a Brazilian passport and any other necessary travel documents for the child. 

It’s important to note that the Brazilian government prioritizes domestic adoption over international adoption, so international adoptions may take longer to complete than domestic adoptions. Adoptive parents should be prepared for a potentially lengthy and complex process and should work closely with an accredited adoption agency and the Brazilian Central Authority to ensure that they are following all necessary procedures and requirements.

Best Regards,

Dr. Mauricio Ejchel


Dr. Mauricio Ejchel

International Lawyer, graduated from the Law School of the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, Postgraduate in International Relations at Laureate International Universities, admitted to the Brazilian Bar in 1995, founding partner of MF Ejchel Advocacy International (est. 1996), law specialist commentator at the Brazilians TV Networks and columnist for Radio Justice, that belongs to the Brazilian Supreme Court.

Dr. Ejchel concentrates his expertise on international family law, lectures on international child abduction and other international family law topics on television and radio show and is frequently featured in the print media.

As an academic writer, has several legal articles published both in Portuguese and English.
With over 25 years of legal experience and commitment to the advocacy, he provides strategic legal advices based on his ability to manage complex cases and negotiate legal contingencies, being also an experienced barrister, obstinately acting before the Brazilian Courts in numerous lawsuits.